Look at the overall text to begin your annotation. Can you spot patterns in the structure? Look out for:
- paragraph lengths
- repeated words introducing paragraphs
- signpost sentences introducing paragraphs (like 'Firstly...', 'Secondly...', 'In addition...')
- headings and subheadings
- time and place
Once you have spotted structural features of the text, make a note of the feature used. Then, to develop your idea, add a note to briefly consider the effect of that feature - why has it been used? What is the writer emphasising or highlighting by using it?
Don’t highlight all the language features you spot – you’ll end up highlighting the whole text. Pick out the first example of each literary device you see, and after that, only the more interesting ones. They might be interesting because they’re unusual, or because they’re doing a particularly good job of creating an effect linked to purpose or audience.
Do pick out individual words which you can explore closely – ones with particular connotations, for example, or ones which seem especially significant. These are usually adjectives, or phrases that have used particular techniques to conjure up a specific image.
There are many key writing techniques required to achieve the best grades.
The video and text below look at some of the best technigues to help you achieve top marks
What are these techniques?
- Remain focused on the question
- Clear conclusion
- Organisation/ paragraphing
Good essay practice should include:-
- Make sure you write a brief plan for your answer. In your plan you should identify very clearly around six distinct points you intend to make and the specific parts of the text that you intend to examine in some detail.
- Spend about 5 or 10 minutes planning as this will help you make sure you have chosen the right question (because then you know you have lots of material to cover).
- This should be brief; you could include what your main view is and what other ideas you have.
- Don't list the poems or ideas you are going to include in the rest of your essay as you will be repeating yourself.
- Don't begin with ‘In this essay I am going to ...' and then list ideas.
- Try to begin by addressing the question straight away.
- Make sure you use them as it makes your writing clearer for you and the examiner.
- When writing your essay you should devote one or two paragraphs to each idea from your plan. Try to make smooth links between paragraphs.
- When you make a point - you must give evidence to prove it. When you make a point, refer to the text and give an example to back up what you say. The best way to do this is to use a quotation from the text.
- Remember to include quotations, but not too many and don't make them too long. A good quotation can be a line or two long or just a few words from a line.
- Do not copy out whole long sections from texts as this is wasting time.
- Don't retell the plot of the story. The important thing is to be selective in the way you use the text. Only refer to those parts of the book/poem that help you to answer the question.
Answer the question
- It sounds obvious, but it's so easy to forget the question and write the essay you did in the mock. When you have finished a paragraph read it through and ask yourself. "Am I still answering the question?" If you think you are not then you need to change it, so that you are still focussed.
- At the end, try to draw all the strands of your various points together. This should be the part of your essay that answers the question most directly and forcefully. Keep checking the question.
- Keep it formal. Try to avoid making it chatty, so avoid using abbreviations e.g. ‘don't', ‘won't' and do not call writers by their surnames so for William Golding you should call him Golding rather than William, which is too informal.
- Remember you do not have to agree with other people's points of view about literature. If your ideas are original or different, so long as you develop them clearly, use evidence intelligently and argue persuasively, your point of view will be respected. We want literature to touch you personally and it will often affect different people in different ways. Be creative.
- There is no one correct answer to questions on English Literature, just well explored and explained ones.
CHECKLIST AFTER WRITING YOUR ESSAY
- Written a plan and stuck to it?
- Written in clear paragraphs?
- Produced evidence to prove all your points?
- Used quotations from your chosen text(s)?
- Answered the question?
Generally speaking to get good marks you have to do the following:
To get an A* you need to be insightful, sensitive, convincing and evaluative.
For an A you need to be analytical and exploratory.
For a B you need to sustain your answer linking details to what the writer is trying to say and thoughtfully consider the meanings of the texts.
For a C you need to structure your answer to the question, use details effectively to back up your ideas and make some appropriate comment on the meaning of the texts.
For a D you need to answer the question and explain your ideas with some supporting quotations from the text.