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El Teatre Municipal de Girona sortirà de nou al carrer per refrescar les nits de la canícula amb una programació que té com a cap de cartell la proposta de circ contemporani A corps perdus, dels acròbates francesos Bivouac.

Seran un total de 13 espectacles completament gratuïts, 5 d'ells familiars, del 26 de juny fins al 26 de juliol, en escenaris com la plaça dels Jurats, la plaça del Pallol, la plaça de les Botxes de la Devesa i l'auditori del centre La Mercè, on hi haurà dos espectacles de sala.

Bivouac portarà el 5 de juliol a la plaça del Pallol A corps perdus, una aproposta capaç de posar el públic en tensió mentre els acròbates evolucionen enfilats en una fràgil estructura de pals, en un intent de «retrobar de nou l'equilibri de la humanitat».

Per primer any la totalitat dels espectacles serà gratuïta en la programació a l'aire lliure del Municipal de Girona, que trobarà en el circ el gènere més representat.

La proposta arrencarà el 26 de juny amb l'espectacle familiar de circ i pallasso amb malabars Ni cap ni peus, de Circ Vermut, a la plaça dels Jurats a les 19 hores.

Tots els espectacles familiars seran a les 19 hores. I aquesta serà l'hora d'inici de la faula tradicional La cigala i la formiga, on Xip Xap Teatre intenta explicar una història que parla de l'amistat a base de cançons, el 3 de juliol a la plaça dels Jurats.

El seguiran Esquerdes, de la companyia Hotel Iocandi, el 6 de juliol, amb una proposta de trapezi, escala i circ contemporani.

El 10 de juliol a la plaça del Pallol s'escenificarà l'obra Espera, de la companyia Circo Eia, un espectacle de toc subtil que durant 40 minuts d'acrobàcies convida el públic a pujar a l'escenari mentre els artistes evolucionen concentrats en la seva feina. Espera forma part del programa familiar.

Topa, de Brodas-Kukai, una barreja de dansa tradiconal basca i altres modalitats de dansa urbana, també serà present a EscèNit, l'11 de juliol a la plaça del Pallol.

El ball és la forma d'expressió de l'esbojarrat humorista Marcel Tomàs a l'espectacle Trams, el 12 de juliol a la plaça del Pallol.

La dansa i l'humor són els protagonistes de Follow the leader, un homenatge al fenomen fan que Xevi Xavi Xou presentarà el 13 de juliol al centre La Mercè, escenari que tancarà l'EscèNit el 26 de juliol amb Untitled, un espectacle de música rítmica amb dues bateries i ballarins, d'Impàs Dansa. Aquests dos espectacles a La Mercè començaran a les 21 hores.

Teatre Mòbil proposa Xarivari, una obra còmica amb números de pallasso i conte fantàstic, el 17 de juliol a la plaça del Pallol (19 h).

La Industrial Teatrera presenta amb tendresa la vida quotidiana de dos Nàufrags que evolucionen a la deriva perquè «la vida està feta de naufragis», com exposaran el 18 de juliol a la plaça del Pallol (22 h).

Òpera en transmissió

La plaça dels Jurats acollirà el 21 de juliol la transmissió de l'òpera Il trovatore, del cicle Liceu a la Fresca.

Finalment, Circo Los oferirà al singular espai de la plaça de les Botxes de la Devesa l'obra Xarivari, un espectacle que busca divertir amb quatre experimentats artistes de circ inspirats en la pel·lícula The Blue Brothers. Serà el dilluns 24 de juliol i inclourà un sorprenent número de llit elàstic.

Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.

Reduplication is used in inflections to convey a grammatical function, such as plurality, intensification, etc., and in lexicalderivation to create new words. It is often used when a speaker adopts a tone more "expressive" or figurative than ordinary speech and is also often, but not exclusively, iconic in meaning. Reduplication is found in a wide range of languages and language groups, though its level of linguistic productivity varies.

Reduplication is the standard term for this phenomenon in the linguistics literature. Other terms that are occasionally used include cloning, doubling, duplication, repetition, and tautonym when it is used in biological taxonomies, such as "Bison bison".

The origin of this usage of tautonym is uncertain, but it has been suggested that it is of relatively recent derivation.

Typological description[edit]

Form[edit]

Reduplication is often described phonologically in one of two different ways: either (1) as reduplicated segments (sequences of consonants/vowels) or (2) as reduplicated prosodic units (syllables or moras). In addition to phonological description, reduplication often needs to be described morphologically as a reduplication of linguistic constituents (i.e. words, stems, roots). As a result, reduplication is interesting theoretically as it involves the interface between phonology and morphology.

The base is the word (or part of the word) that is to be copied. The reduplicated element is called the reduplicant, often abbreviated as RED or sometimes just R.

In reduplication, the reduplicant is most often repeated only once. However, in some languages, reduplication can occur more than once, resulting in a tripled form, and not a duple as in most reduplication. Triplication is the term for this phenomenon of copying two times.[1]Pingelapese has both reduplication and triplication.

Basic verbReduplicationTriplication
kɔul  'to sing'kɔukɔul  'singing'kɔukɔukɔul  'still singing'
mejr  'to sleep'mejmejr  'sleeping'mejmejmejr  'still sleeping'

(Rehg 1981)

Triplication occurs in other languages, e.g. Ewe, Shipibo, Twi, Mokilese, Min Nan (Hokkien), Stau(Gates 2016).

Sometimes gemination (i.e. the doubling of consonants or vowels) is considered to be a form of reduplication. The term dupleme has been used (after morpheme) to refer to different types of reduplication that have the same meaning.

Full and partial reduplication[edit]

Full reduplication involves a reduplication of the entire word. For example, Kham derives reciprocal forms from reflexive forms by total reduplication:

  [ɡin]'ourselves'[ɡinɡin]'we (to) us'(ɡin-ɡin)
  [jaː]'themselves'[jaːjaː]'they (to) them'(jaː-jaː)(Watters 2002)

Another example is from Musqueam Halkomelem "dispositional" aspect formation:

  [kʼʷə́ɬ]'to capsize'[kʼʷə́ɬkʼʷəɬ]'likely to capsize'(kʼʷə́ɬ-kʼʷəɬ)
  [qʷél]'to speak'[qʷélqʷel]'talkative'(qʷél-qʷel)(Shaw 2004)

Partial reduplication involves a reduplication of only part of the word. For example, Marshallese forms words meaning 'to wear X' by reduplicating the last consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) sequence of a base, i.e. base+CVC:

  kagir'belt'kagirgir'to wear a belt'(kagir-gir)
  takin'sock'takinkin'to wear socks'(takin-kin)(Moravsik 1978)

Many languages often use both full and partial reduplication, as in the Motu example below:

Base verbFull reduplicationPartial reduplication
mahuta  'to sleep'mahutamahuta  'to sleep constantly'mamahuta  'to sleep (plural)'
 (mahuta-mahuta)(ma-mahuta)

Reduplicant position[edit]

Reduplication may be initial (i.e. prefixal), final (i.e. suffixal), or internal (i.e. infixal), e.g.

Initial reduplication in Agta(CV- prefix):

  [ɸuɾab]'afternoon'[ɸuɸuɾab]'late afternoon'(ɸu-ɸuɾab)
  [ŋaŋaj]'a long time'[ŋaŋaŋaj]'a long time (in years)'(ŋa-ŋaŋaj)(Healey 1960)

Final reduplication in Dakota(-CCV suffix):

  [hãska]'tall (singular)'[hãskaska]'tall (plural)'(hãska-ska)
  [waʃte]'good (singular)'[waʃteʃte]'good (plural)'(waʃte-ʃte)(Shaw 1980, Marantz 1982, Albright 2002)

Internal reduplication in Samoan(-CV- infix):

  savali'he/she walks' (singular)savavali'they walk' (plural)(sa-va-vali)
  alofa'he/she loves' (singular)alolofa'they love' (plural)(a-lo-lofa)(Moravcsik 1978, Broselow and McCarthy 1984)
  le tamaloa'the man' (singular)[2]tamaloloa'men' (plural)(tama-lo-loa)

Internal reduplication is much less common than the initial and final types.

Copying direction[edit]

A reduplicant can copy from either the left edge of a word (left-to-right copying) or from the right edge (right-to-left copying). There is a tendency for prefixing reduplicants to copy left-to-right and for suffixing reduplicants to copy right-to-left:

Initial L → R copying in Oykangand Kunjen (a Pama–Nyungan language of Australia):

  [eder][ededer]'rain'(ed-eder)
  [alɡal][alɡalɡal]'straight'(alg-algal)

Final R → L copying in Sirionó:

  achisiaachisiasia'I cut'(achisia-sia)
  ñimbuchaoñimbuchaochao'to come apart'(ñimbuchao-chao)(McCarthy and Prince 1996)

Copying from the other direction is possible although less common:

Initial R → L copying in Tillamook:

  [ɡaɬ]'eye'[ɬɡaɬ]'eyes'(ɬ-ɡaɬ)
  [təq]'break'[qtəq]'they break'(q-təq)(Reichard 1959)

Final L → R copying in Chukchi:

  nute-'ground'nutenut'ground (abs. sg.)'(nute-nut)
  jilʔe-'gopher'jilʔejil'gopher (abs. sg.)'(jilʔe-jil)(Marantz 1982)

Internal reduplication can also involve copying the beginning or end of the base. In Quileute, the first consonant of the base is copied and inserted after the first vowel of the base.

Internal L → R copying in Quileute:

  [tsiko]'he put it on'[tsitsko]'he put it on (frequentative)'(tsi-ts-ko)
  [tukoːjoʔ]'snow'[tutkoːjoʔ]'snow here and there'(tu-t-ko:jo’)(Broselow and McCarthy 1984)

In Temiar, the last consonant of the root is copied and inserted before the medial consonant of the root.

Internal R → L copying in Temiar (an Austroasiatic language of Malaysia):

  [sluh]'to shoot (perfective)'[shluh]'to shoot (continuative)'(s-h-luh)
  [slɔɡ]'to marry (perfective)'[sɡlɔɡ]'to marry (continuative)'(s-ɡ-lɔɡ)(Broselow and McCarthy 1984, Walther 2000)

A rare type of reduplication is found in Semai (an Austroasiatic language of Malaysia). "Expressive minor reduplication" is formed with an initial reduplicant that copies the first and last segment of the base:

  [kʉːʔ][kʔkʉːʔ]'to vomit'(-kʉːʔ)
  [dŋɔh][dhdŋɔh]'appearance of nodding constantly'(dh-dŋɔh)
  [cruhaːw][cwcruhaːw]'monsoon rain'(cw-cruhaːw)(Diffloth 1973

Reduplication and other morphological processes[edit]

All of the examples above consist of only reduplication. However, reduplication often occurs with other phonological and morphological process, such as deletion, affixation of non-reduplicating material, etc.

For instance, in Tz'utujil a new '-ish' adjective form is derived from other words by suffixing the reduplicated first consonant of the base followed by the segment [oχ]. This can be written succinctly as -Coχ. Below are some examples:

  • [kaq] 'red' → [kaqkoχ] 'reddish'  (kaq-k-oχ)
  • [qʼan] 'yellow' → [qʼanqʼoχ] 'yellowish'  (qʼan--oχ)
  • [jaʔ] 'water' → [jaʔjoχ] 'watery'  (jaʔ-j-oχ)   (Dayley 1985)

Somali has a similar suffix that is used in forming the plural of some nouns: -aC (where C is the last consonant of the base):

  • [toɡ] 'ditch' → [toɡaɡ] 'ditches'  (toɡ-a-ɡ)
  • [ʕad] 'lump of meat' → [ʕadad] 'lumps of meat'  (ʕad-a-d)
  • [wɪːl] 'boy' → [wɪːlal] 'boys'  (wɪːl-a-l)   (Abraham 1964)

This combination of reduplication and affixation is commonly referred to as fixed-segment reduplication.

In Tohono O'odham initial reduplication also involves gemination of the first consonant in the distributive plural and in repetitive verbs:

  • [nowiu] 'ox' → [nonnowiu] 'ox (distributive)'  (no-n-nowiu)
  • [hódai] 'rock' → [hohhodai] 'rock (distributive)'  (ho-h-hodai)
  • [kow] 'dig out of ground (unitative)' → [kokkow] 'dig out of ground (repetitive)'  (ko-k-kow)
  • [ɡɨw] 'hit (unitative)' → [ɡɨɡɡɨw] 'hit (repetitive)'  (ɡɨ-ɡ-ɡɨw)   (Haugen forthcoming)

Sometimes gemination can be analyzed as a type of reduplication.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(May 2008)

Phonological processes, environment, and reduplicant-base relations[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(December 2009)

  • overapplication
  • underapplication
  • backcopying – A putative phenomenon of over-application in the reduplicant of a process triggered by the reduplicant in the base[3]
  • base-reduplicant "identity" (OT terminology: BR-faithfulness)
  • tonal transfer/non-transfer

Function and meaning[edit]

In the Malayo-Polynesian family, reduplication is used to form plurals (among many other functions):

  • Malayrumah "house", rumah-rumah "houses".

In pre-1972 Indonesian and Malay orthography, 2 was shorthand for the reduplication that forms plurals: orang "person", orang-orang or orang2 "people".[4] This orthography has resurfaced widely in text messaging and other forms of electronic communication.

The Nama language uses reduplication to increase the force of a verb: go, "look;", go-go "examine with attention".

Chinese also uses reduplication: 人rén for "person", 人人rénrén for "everybody". Japanese does it too: 時toki "time", tokidoki時々 "sometimes, from time to time". Both languages can use a special written iteration mark々 to indicate reduplication, although in Chinese the iteration mark is no longer used in standard writing and is often found only in calligraphy.

Indo-European languages formerly used reduplication to form a number of verb forms, especially in the preterite or perfect. In the older Indo-European languages, many such verbs survive:

  • spondeo, spopondi (Latin, "I vow, I vowed")
  • λείπω, λέλοιπα (Greek, "I leave, I left")
  • δέρκομαι, δέδορκα (Greek, "I see, I saw"; these Greek examples exhibit ablaut as well as reduplication)
  • háitan, haíháit (Gothic, "to name, I named")

None of these sorts of forms survive in modern English, although they existed in its parent Germanic languages. A number of verbs in the Indo-European languages exhibit reduplication in the present stem rather than the perfect stem, often with a different vowel from that used for the perfect: Latin gigno, genui ("I beget, I begat") and Greek τίθημι, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα (I place, I placed, I have placed). Other Indo-European verbs used reduplication as a derivational process; compare Latin sto ("I stand") and sisto ("I remain"). All of these Indo-European inherited reduplicating forms are subject to reduction by other phonological laws.

Reduplication can be used to refer to the most prototypical instance of a word's meaning. In such a case, it is called contrastive focus reduplication. Finnish colloquial speech uses this process; nouns can be reduplicated to indicate genuinity, completeness, originality and being uncomplicated as opposed to being fake, incomplete, complicated or fussy. It can be thought as compound word formation. For example, Söin jäätelöä ja karkkia, sekä tietysti ruokaruokaa. "I ate ice cream and candy, and of course food-food". Here, "food-food" is contrasted to "junk-food". One may say "En ollut eilen koulussa, koska olin kipeä. Siis kipeäkipeä" ("I wasn't at school yesterday because I was sick. Sick-sick, that is"), meaning one was actually suffering from an illness and is not making up excuses as usual.

  • ruoka "food", ruokaruoka "proper food", as opposed to snacks
  • peli "game", pelipeli "complete game", as opposed to a mod
  • puhelin "phone", puhelinpuhelin "phone for talking", as opposed to a pocket computer
  • kauas "far away", kauaskauas "unquestionably far away"
  • koti "home", kotikoti "home of your parents", as opposed to one's current place of residence

Words can be reduplicated with their case morphemes, as in lomalla lomalla, where the adessive morpheme (--lla) appears twice. While reduplication is intelligible to most Finns, its usage is confined mostly to subgroups of young women and children (and possibly fathers of young children when talking to their children). However, most young women and children do not use reduplication. Reduplication has a somewhat childish connotation, and may be perceived as annoying.

In Swiss German, the verbs gah or goh "go", cho "come", la or lo "let" and aafa or aafo "begin" reduplicate when combined with other verbs.

example:SichuntüseChrischtboumchoschmücke.
literal translation:shecomesourChristmas treecomeadorn
translationShe comes to adorn our Christmas tree.
example:Silatnenidlaschlafe.
literal translation:sheletshimnotletsleep
translation:She doesn't let him sleep.

In some Salishan languages, reduplication is used to mark both diminution and plurality, one process applying to each end of the word, as in the following example from Shuswap. Note that the data was transcribed in a way that is not comparable to the IPA, but the reduplication of both initial and final portions of the root is clear: ṣōk!Emē'’n 'knife' reduplicated as ṣuk!ṣuk!Emen'’me’n 'plural small knives' (Haeberlin 1918:159). Reduplication has been found to be a major part of Salish languages.[5]

Reduplicative babbling in child language acquisition[edit]

During the period 25–50 weeks after birth, all typically developing infants go through a stage of reduplicated or canonical babbling (Stark 198, Oller, 1980). Canonical babbling is characterized by repetition of identical or nearly identical consonant-vowel combinations, such as 'nanana' or 'didididi'. It appears as a progression of language development as infants experiment with their vocal apparatus and home in on the sounds used in their native language. Canonical/reduplicated babbling also appears at a time when general rhythmic behavior, such as rhythmic hand movements and rhythmic kicking, appear. Canonical babbling is distinguished from earlier syllabic and vocal play, which has less structure.

Examples[edit]

Indo-European[edit]

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

The Proto-Indo-European language used partial reduplication of a consonant and e in many stative aspect verb forms. The perfect or preterite (past) tense of some Ancient Greek,[6]Gothic, and Latin verbs preserves this reduplication:

  • Ancient Greek λύωlúō 'I free' vs. λέλυκαléluka "I have freed"
  • Gothic hald "I hold" vs. haíhald (hĕhald) "I/he held"
  • Latin currō "I run" vs. cucurrī "I ran" or "have run"

Proto-Indo-European also used reduplication for imperfective aspect. Ancient Greek preserves this reduplication in the present tense of some verbs. Usually, but not always, this is reduplication of a consonant and i, and contrasts with e-reduplication in the perfect:[7]

  • δίδωμιdídōmi "I give" (present)
  • δέδωκαdédōka "I have given" (perfect)
  • *σίσδωsísdō → ἵζωhízō "I set" (present)
  • *σέσδομαιsésdomai → ἕζομαιhézomai "I sit down" (present; from sd-, zero-grade of root in *sed-os → ἕδος hédos "seat, abode")

Reduplication in nouns was rare, the best example being Proto-Indo-European *kʷé-kʷl-os ‘wheel’ (cf. Lithuaniankãklas ‘neck’, Sanskritcakrá ‘wheel’), which doubled *kʷel-o- (cf. Old Prussiankelan ‘wheel’, Welshpel ‘ball’),[8] itself likely a deverbative of *kʷelh₁- ‘to turn’.

English[edit]

English has several types of reduplication, ranging from informal expressive vocabulary (the first four forms below) to grammatically meaningful forms (the last two below).

  • Rhyming reduplication: hokey-pokey, razzle-dazzle, super-duper, boogie-woogie, teenie-weenie, walkie-talkie, hoity-toity, wingding, ragtag, easy-peasy, hurdy-gurdy.
  • Exact reduplications (baby-talk-like): bye-bye, choo-choo, night-night, no-no, pee-pee, poo-poo. In South African English, 'now-now' means 'immediately' (whereas an ordinary 'now' can also mean 'somewhat later').
  • Ablaut reduplications: chit-chat, criss-cross, hip-hop, ding-dong, jibber-jabber, kitty-cat, knick-knack, pitter-patter, splish-splash, zig-zag, flimflam, wibble-wobble. In the ablaut reduplications, the first vowel is almost always a high vowel and the reduplicated ablaut variant of the vowel is a low vowel.
  • Shm-reduplication can be used with most any word; e.g. baby-shmaby, cancer-shmancer and fancy-shmancy. This process is a feature of American English from Yiddish, starting among the American Jews of New York City, then the New York dialect and then the whole country.

Only the last of the above types is productive, meaning that examples of the first three are fixed forms and new forms are not easily accepted.

  • Comparative reduplication: In the sentence "John's apple looked redder and redder," the reduplication of the comparative indicates that the comparative is becoming more true over time, meaning roughly "John's apple looked progressively redder as time went on." In particular, this construction does not mean that John's apple is redder than some other apple, which would be a possible interpretation in the absence of reduplication, e.g. in "John's apple looked redder." With reduplication, the comparison is of the object being compared to itself over time. Comparative reduplication always combines the reduplicated comparative with "and". This construction is common in speech and is used even in formal speech settings, but it is less common in formal written texts. Although English has simple constructs with similar meanings, such as "John's apple looked ever redder," these simpler constructs are rarely used in comparison with the reduplicative form. Comparative reduplication is fully productive and clearly changes the meaning of any comparative to a temporal one, despite the absence of any time-related words in the construction. For example, the temporal meaning of "The frug seemed wuggier and wuggier" is clear: Despite not knowing what a frug is or what wugginess is, we know that the apparent wugginess of the frug was increasing over time, as indicated by the reduplication of the comparative "wuggier".
  • Contrastive focus reduplication: Exact reduplication can be used with contrastive focus (generally where the first noun is stressed) to indicate a literal, as opposed to figurative, example of a noun, or perhaps a sort of Platonic ideal of the noun, as in "Is that carrot cheesecake or carrot CAKE-cake?".[9] This is similar to the Finnish use mentioned above. Furthermore, it is used to contrast "real" or "pure" things against imitations or less pure forms. For example, at a coffee shop one may be asked, "Do you want soy milk?" and respond, "No, I want milk milk." This gives the idea that they want "real" milk.

The double copula is in some cases a type of reduplication, which may be regarded as non-standard or incorrect.

More can be learned about English reduplication in Thun (1963), Cooper and Ross (1975), and Nevins and Vaux (2003).

Latin[edit]

See also: Latin declension § Correlatives

In addition to having some reduplicated presents and perfects, Latin uses reduplication for some indefinite relative pronouns, such as quisque "whoever" and ubiubi "wherever".

Latin jingles. There are also several complete two word sentences such as: Cǒmam cōmam. "I shall tidy my hair."[10]

Dutch[edit]

While not common in Dutch, reduplication does exist. Most, but not all (e.g., pipi, blauwblauw (laten), taaitaai (gingerbread)) reduplications in Dutch are loanwords (e.g., koeskoes, bonbon, (ik hoorde het) via via) or imitative (e.g., tamtam, tomtom).[11] Another example is a former safe sex campaign slogan in Flanders: Eerst bla-bla, dan boem-boem (First talk, then have sex; lit. First blah-blah, then boom-boom). In Dutch the verb "gaan" (to go) can be used as an auxiliary verb, which can lead to a triplication: we gaan (eens) gaan gaan (we are going to get going). The use of gaan as an auxiliary verb with itself is considered incorrect, but is commonly used in Flanders.[12] Numerous examples of reduplication in Dutch (and other languages) are discussed by Daniëls (2000).

Afrikaans[edit]

Afrikaans makes use of reduplication to emphasize the meaning of the word repeated and to denote a plural or event happening in more than one place. For example, krap means "to scratch one's self," while krap-krap-krap means "to scratch one's self vigorously",[13] whereas "dit het plek-plek gereën", means "it rained here and there".[14] Reduplication in Afrikaans has been described extensively in the literature – see for example Botha (1988), Van Huyssteen (2004) and Van Huyssteen & Wissing (2007). Further examples of this include: "koes" (to dodge) being reduplicated in the sentence "Piet hardloop koes-koes weg" (Piet is running away while constantly dodging / cringing); "sukkel" (to struggle) becoming "sukkel-sukkel" (making slow progress; struggling on); and "kierang" (to cheat) becoming "kierang-kierang" to indicate being cheated on repeatedly.[15]

Romance[edit]

In Italian reduplication was used both to create new words or words associations (tran-tran, via via, leccalecca) and to intensify the meaning (piano piano "very slowly").

Common in Lingua Franca, particularly but not exclusively for onomatopoeic action descriptions: "Spagnoli venir...boum boum...andar; Inglis venir...boum boum bezef...andar; Francés venir...tru tru tru...chapar." ("The Spaniards came, cannonaded, and left. The English came, cannonaded heavily, and left. The French came, trumpeted on bugles, and captured it.")[16]

Common uses for reduplication in French are the creation of hypocoristics for names, whereby Louise becomes Loulou, and Zinedine Zidane becomes Zizou; and in many nursery words, like dada 'horsie' (vs. cheval 'horse'), tati 'auntie' (vs. tante 'aunt'), or tonton 'unkie' (vs. oncle 'uncle').

In Romanian and Catalan, reduplication is not uncommon and it has been used for both the creation of new words (including many from onomatopoeia) and expressions, for example,

  • Romanian: mormăi, ţurţur, dârdâi, expressions talmeş-balmeş, harcea-parcea, terchea-berchea, ţac-pac, calea-valea, hodoronc-tronc, and recent slang, trendy-flendy.
  • Catalan: balandrim-balandram, baliga-balaga, banzim-banzam, barliqui-barloqui, barrija-barreja, bitllo-bitllo, bub-bub, bum-bum, but-but, catric-catrac, cloc-cloc, cloc-piu, corre-corrents, de nyigui-nyogui, farrigo-farrago, flist-flast, fru-fru, gara-gara, gloc-gloc, gori-gori, leri-leri, nap-buf, ning-nang, ning-ning, non-non, nyam-nyam, nyau-nyau, nyec-nyec, nyeu-nyeu, nyic-nyic, nyigo-nyigo, nyigui-nyogui, passa-passa, pengim-penjam, pif-paf, ping-pong, piu-piu, poti-poti, rau-rau, ringo-rango, rum-rum, taf-taf, tam-tam, tau-tau, tic-tac, tol·le-tol·le, tric-trac, trip-trap, tris-tras, viu-viu, xano-xano, xau-xau, xerric-xerrac, xim-xim, xino-xano, xip-xap, xiu-xiu, xup-xup, zig-zag, ziga-zaga, zim-zam, zing-zing, zub-zub, zum-zum.

In colloquial Mexican Spanish it is common to use reduplicated adverbs such as luego luego (after after) meaning "immediately", or casi casi (almost almost) which intensifies the meaning of 'almost'.

Slavic languages[edit]

The reduplication in the Russian language serves for various kinds of intensifying of the meaning and exists in several forms: a hyphenated or repeated word (either exact or inflected reduplication), and forms similar to shm-reduplication.[17]

Celtic languages[edit]

Reduplication is a common feature of Irish and includes the examples rírá, ruaille buaille both meaning 'commotion' and fite fuaite meaning 'intertwined'.[18]

Persian[edit]

Reduplication is a very common practice in Persian, to the extent that there are jokes about it. Mainly due to the mixed nature of the Persian language, most of the reduplication comes in the form of a phrase consisting of a Persian word -va- (Persian: وَ‎ = and) and an Arabic word, like "Taghdir-Maghdir" (تقدیرمقدیر). Reduplication is particularly common in the city of Shiraz in southwestern Iran. One can further categorize the reduplicative words into "True" and "Quasi" ones. In true reduplicative words, both words are actually real words and have meaning in the language in which it is used. In quasi-reduplicative words, at least one of the words does not have a meaning. Some examples of true reduplicative words in Persian are: "Xert-o-Pert" (خرت‌وپرت = Odds and ends); "Čert-o-Pert" (چرت‌وپرت = Nonsense); "Čarand-[o-]Parand" (چرند[و]پرند = Nonsense); "Āb-o-Tāb" (آب‌وتاب = much detail). Among the quasi-reduplicative words are "Zan-[o-]man" (زن[و]من = wife); "Da'vā-Ma'vā" (دعوامعوا = Argument); "Talā-malā" (طلاملا = jewelry); and "Raxt-o-Paxt" ( = Items of clothing). Reduplication in Persian is sometimes a mockery of words with non-Persian origins.

Indo-Aryan (and Dravidian) languages[edit]

Typically all Indo-Aryan languages, like Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati and Bengali use partial or echoic reduplication in some form or the other. It is usually used to sound casual, or in a suggestive manner. It is often used to mean etcetera. For example, in Hindi, chai-shai (chai means tea, while this phrase means tea or any other supplementary drink or tea along with snacks). Quite common in casual conversations are a few more examples like shopping-wopping, khana-wana. Reduplication is also used in Dravidian languages like Telugu for the same purpose.[19] South Asian languages are also rich in other forms of reduplication: morphological (expressives), lexical (distributives), and phrasal (aspectual).

  • morphological: मनात हूर हूर दाटून येते [20]
    manaa-t hur-hur daaT.un yete
    mind-in longing choking comes
    'Yearning desire floods into my heart.' Marathi
  • lexical: 'Each-each boy take one-one chair.' Indian English
  • phrasal: పిల్లవాడు నడుస్తూ నడుస్తూ పడి పోయాడు [21]
    pillavāḍu naḍustū naḍustū paḍi pōyāḍu
    child walking walking fall went
    'The child fell down while walking.' Telugu

Reduplication also occurs in the 3th[clarification needed] gaṇa (verb class) of the Sanskrit language: bibheti "he fears", bibharti "he bears", juhoti "he offers", dadāti, "he gives". Even though the general idea is to reduplicate the verb root as a prefix, several sandhi rules change the final outcome.

Nepalese[edit]

A number of Nepalese nouns are formed by reduplication. As in other languages, the meaning is not that of a true plural, but collectives that refer to a set of the same or related objects, often in a particular situation.

For example, "rangi changi" describes an object that is extremely or vividly colorful, like a crazy mix of colors and/or patterns, perhaps dizzying to the eye. The phrase "hina mina" means "scattered," like a large collection of objects spilled (or scampering, as in small animals) in all different directions. The basic Nepalese word for food, "khana" becomes "khana sana" to refer to the broad generality of anything served at a meal. Likewise, "chiya" or tea (conventionally made with milk and sugar) becomes "chiya siya": tea and snacks (such as biscuits or cookies). (Please note, these examples of Nepalese words are spelled with a simplified Latin transliteration only, not as exact spellings.)

Turkish[edit]

In Turkish there are two kinds of reduplication:

  1. A word can be reduplicated while replacing the initial consonants (not being m, and possibly missing) with m. The effect is that the meaning of the original word is broadened. For example, tabak means "plate(s)", and tabak mabak then means "plates, dishes and such". This can be applied not only to nouns but to all kinds of words, as in yeşil meşil meaning "green, greenish, whatever". Although not used in formal written Turkish, it is a completely standard and fully accepted construction.
  2. A word can be reduplicated totally, giving a related but different meaning or used for emphasizing. For example, zaman zaman (time time) meaning "occasionally"; uzun uzun (long long) meaning "very long or many things long". This type is used also in formal Turkish, especially in literature.

Uralic[edit]

Finnish[edit]

As described earlier, contrastive lexical reduplication is used in colloquial Finnish speech. Another type of reduplication occurs in Standard Finnish; reduplication as an intensifier. Common examples of this include suurensuuri (big-GEN big-NOM) literally "big of big(ness)", pienenpieni (small-GEN small-NOM) literally "small of small(ness)", hienonhieno (fine-GEN fine-NOM). The last example, literally "fine of fine(ness)," roughly means "very fine". Other adjectives may sometimes be duplicated as well, where a superlative is too strong an expression, somewhat similarly to Slavic languages. This construction can be ambiguous because of its use of a genitive noun followed by a nominative noun, which is not unique to reduplication. For instance the reduplicated form suurensuuri jalka (big foot of bigness) sounds the same as suuren suuri jalka (big foot of someone big).

Hungarian[edit]

Reduplication is usually rhyming. It can add emphasis: 'pici' (tiny) -> ici-pici (very tiny) and it can modify meaning: 'néha-néha' ('seldom-seldom': seldom but repeatedly), 'erre-arra' ('this way-that way', meaning movement without a definite direction), 'ezt-azt' ('this-that', meaning 'all sort of things'), Reduplication often evokes a sense of playfulness and it's quite common when talking to small children.

Bantu languages[edit]

Reduplication is a common phenomenon in Bantu languages and is usually used to form a frequentive verb or for emphasis.[22][23]

  • Swahilipiga 'to strike'; pigapiga 'to strike repeatedly'
  • Gandaokukuba (oku-kuba) 'to strike'; okukubaakuba (oku-kuba-kuba) 'to strike repeatedly, to batter'
  • Chewatambalalá 'to stretch one's legs'; tambalalá-tambalalá to stretch one's legs repeatedly'

Popular names that have reduplication include

Semitic[edit]

Semitic languages frequently reduplicate consonants, though often not the vowels that appear next to the consonants in some verb form.[24] This can take the shape of reduplicating the antepenultimate consonant (usually the second of three),[clarification needed] the last of two consonants, or the last two consonants.[25]

Hebrew[edit]

In the Hebrew, reduplication is used in nouns and adjectives. For stress, as in גבר גבר‬ (Gever Gever) where the noun גבר‬ 'man' – is duplicated to mean a manly man, a man among man. Or as in לאט לאט‬ (le-aht le-aht) where the adverb לאט‬ 'slowly' – is duplicated to mean very slowly.

Meaning every, as in יום יום‬ (yom yom) where the noun יום‬ 'day' is duplicated to every day, day in day out, day by day.

Some nouns and adjectives can also be made into diminutives by reduplication of the last two consonants (biconsonantal reduplication), e.g.

  • כלב‬ (Kelev) = Dog
  • חתול‬ (Chatul) = Cat
    • חתלתול‬ (Chataltul) = Kitten
  • לבן‬ (Lavan) = White
    • לבנבן‬ (Levanban) = Whitish
  • קטן‬ (Katan) = Small

Reduplication in Hebrew is also productive for the creation of verbs, by reduplicating the root or part of it e.g.:

dal (דל‬) 'poor, spare' > dilel (דלל‬) 'to dilute' but also dildel (דלדל‬) 'to impoverish, to weaken'; nad (נד‬) 'to move, to nod' > nadad (נדד‬) 'to wander' but also nidned (נדנד‬) 'to swing, to nag'.

Amharic[edit]

In Amharic, verb roots can be reduplicated three different ways. These can result in verbs, nouns, or adjectives (which are often derived from verbs).

From the root sbr 'break', antepenultimate reduplication produces täsäbabbärä 'it was shattered'[26] and biconsonantal reduplication produces täsbäräbbärä 'it was shattered repeatedly' and səbərbari 'a shard, a shattered piece'.[27]

From the root kHb 'pile stones into a wall', since the second radical is not fully specified, what some call "hollow", the antepenultimate reduplication process reduplicates the k, which is by some criteria antepenultimate, and produces akakabä 'pile stones repeatedly'.[28]

Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Burmese[edit]

In Burmese, reduplication is used in verbs and adjectives to form adverbs. Many Burmese words, especially adjectives such as လှပ ('beautiful' [l̥a̰pa̰]), which consist of two syllables (when reduplicated, each syllable is reduplicated separately), when reduplicated (လှပ → လှလှပပ 'beautifully' [l̥a̰l̥a̰ pa̰pa̰]) become adverbs. This is also true of many Burmese verbs, which become adverbs when reduplicated.

Some nouns are also reduplicated to indicate plurality. For instance, ပြည်, means "country," but when reduplicated to အပြည်ပြည်, it means "many countries" (as in အပြည်ပြည်ဆိုင်ရာ, "international"). Another example is အမျိုး, which means "kinds," but the reduplicated form အမျိုးမျိုး means "multiple kinds."

A few measure words can also be reduplicated to indicate "one or the other":

  • ယောက် (measure word for people) → တစ်ယောက်ယောက် (someone)
  • ခု (measure word for things) → တစ်ခုခု (something)

Chinese[edit]

Adjective reduplication is common in Standard Chinese, typically denoting emphasis, less acute degree of the quality described, or an attempt at more indirect speech: xiǎoxiǎo de 小小的 (small, tiny), chòuchòu de 臭臭的 (smelly). Reduplication can also reflect a "cute", juvenile or informal register; in this respect, it can be compared to the English diminutive ending "-y" or "-ie" (tiny, smelly, 狗狗 "doggie", etc.)

In the case of adjectives composed of two characters (morphemes), generally each of the two characters is reduplicated separately: piàoliang 漂亮 (beautiful) reduplicates as piàopiàoliangliang 漂漂亮亮.

Verb reduplication is also common in Standard Chinese, conveying the meaning of informal and temporary character of the action. It is often used in imperative expressions, in which it lessens the degree of imperativity: zuòzuò 坐坐 (sit (for a while)), děngděng 等等 (wait (for a while)). Compound verbs are reduplicated as a whole word: xiūxixiūxi 休息休息 (rest (for a while)). This can be analyzed as an instance of omission of "一" (originally, e.g., "坐一坐" or "等一等" ) or "一下" (originally, e.g., "坐一下").

Noun reduplication, though nearly absent in Standard Chinese, is found in the southwestern dialect of Mandarin. For instance, in Sichuan Mandarin, bāobāo 包包 (handbag) is used whereas Beijing use bāor 包儿. One notable exception is the colloquial use of bāobāo 包包 by non-Sichuanese speakers to denote a perceived fancy, attractive, or "cute" purse (somewhat equivalent to the English "baggie"). However, there are few nouns that can be reduplicated in Standard Chinese, and reduplication denotes generalisation and uniformity: rén 人 (human being) and rénrén 人人 (everybody (in general, in common)), jiājiāhùhù 家家户户 (every household (uniformly)) – in the latter jiā and additionally duplicate the meaning of household, which is a common way of creating compound words in Chinese.

Japanese[edit]

A small number of native Japanese nouns have collective forms produced by reduplication (possibly with rendaku), such as 人々 hitobito "people" (hb is rendaku) – these are written with the iteration mark "々" to indicate duplication. This formation is not productive and is limited to a small set of nouns. Similarly to Standard Chinese, the meaning is not that of a true plural, but collectives that refer to a large, given set of the same object; for example, the formal English equivalent of 人々 would be "people" (collective), rather than "persons" (plural individuals).

Japanese also contains a large number of mimetic words formed by reduplication of a syllable. These words include not only onomatopoeia, but also words intended to invoke non-auditory senses or psychological states, such as きらきら kirakira (sparkling or shining). By one count, approximately 43% of Japanese mimetic words are formed by full reduplication,[29][30] and many others are formed by partial reduplication, as in がささ〜 ga-sa-sa- (rustling)[31] – compare English "a-ha-ha-ha".

Austroasiatic[edit]