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1996 Ap English Language And Composition Essay

AP Language and Composition

Segment A of this course deals primarily with rhetorical analysis of nonfiction texts. Students learn that authors use a variety of rhetorical strategies and stylistic elements to convey a message, and that successful academic reading and writing depends upon the ability to analyze these strategies and elements and incorporate them into their own writing. Topics covered include the tools of rhetoric, the structure of arguments, and the skillful use of credible evidence to support substantive claims. By the end of this course, students learn to analyze visual as well as written texts by studying imagery, syntax, structure, composition, tone and detail to determine an author’s purpose and assess the effectiveness of the message. The persuasive and argumentative writing skills developed in this course will be helpful in college and the real world.

Segment B of this course moves from analysis to synthesis, or the practice of combining and citing several sources to formulate a substantive argument. The focus is still primarily on nonfiction. To prove and support a position, a writer must include well-integrated supporting facts. Efficient research includes proper gathering, analysis, and synthesis of sources, and proper citation is essential for a research paper to be valid and credible. This part of the course also addresses satire as an art form, recognizing that satire in its many forms and its uses can help us be more civically engaged and responsible. The entire course prepares students to take the AP English Language and Composition

Exam, an assessment intended to: assess the ability to analyze and interpret samples of good writing, identify and explain the author’s use of rhetorical strategies and techniques, and show that students can create and sustain arguments based on readings, research, and/or personal experience to demonstrate understanding and mastery of standard written English as well as stylistic maturity in their own.

PRE-REQUISITES: Varies.

ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 32-36 weeks or approximately 125 – 135 hours

MAJOR TOPICS AND CONCEPTS — SEGMENT A

Introduction to AP English Language and Composition

  • Introduction to critical reading.
  • Reading to Write: Becoming a Critical Reader.
  • Rhetorical Analysis of the Gettysburg Address.
  • Analysis of 1996 AP English Language exam prompt
  • Writing The Rhetorical Analysis Essay 1996 Prompt (Gary Soto).
  • Implied thesis. Irony. Structure. Rhetorical strategies: dialogue, framing, irony.
  • Analysis of descriptive elements, repeated images and ideas, and sensory language.
  • Effect of narrative structure on theme and meaning. Write a description of a place from your childhood.

Rhetorical Analysis Practice

  • Analysis of ethos, logos and pathos
  • Analysis of rhetorical devices
  • Analysis of literary devices
  • Compare/Contrast rhetoric and then to analyze how the tone affects each message in terms of occasion and audience
  • Analysis of text for 1999 AP Prompt (Okefenokee Swamp
  • Formal Essay: Comparison/Contrast
  • Revising the rhetorical analysis essay

The Structure of Argument

  • Comparing elements of persuasive and argumentative writing
  • Planning an argumentative essay
  • Inductive and deductive reasoning
  • Using Toulmin logic
  • Beware the logical fallacies!
  • Structuring an argumentative essay
  • Editing and revising an argumentative essay

Analyzing Visual Argument

  • Identifying Messages in Visual Texts
  • The Rhetoric of Visual Texts
  • Locating Ethos, Logos, and Pathos in Visual Texts
  • How Visual Ads Persuade Us
  • How Editorial Cartoons Present an Argument

Research and Synthesis

  • Effective analysis of text
  • Conventions of formal argument
  • Use writing process strategies to produce argumentative essays
  • Critique of each other’s argumentative essays in peer conferences
  • Complete self-evaluation of their writing

MAJOR TOPICS AND CONCEPTS — SEGMENT B

Synthesis

  • Building a Persuasive Argument
  • Addressing the Opposition
  • Connecting Sources to Your Position
  • Basic Essay Structure
  • The Purpose of the Synthesis Essay

Research

  • Finding and Evaluating Sources
  • Integrating Sources
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • MLA Documentation

Humor and Satire

  • Defining satire through its strategies
  • Development of satire through the ages
  • Effect of satire on politics
  • Humor and Satire: A Progressive Look
  • Analyzing the rhetoric of satire

Review

  • Test Format: Preparing for the AP English Language Multiple Choice
  • Rhetorical Analysis
  • Argument Essay
  • Synthesis Essay
  • Clauses
  • Phrases

LINKS TO FULL COURSE CURRICULUM MAPS

SEGMENT A

SEGMENT B

Unformatted text preview: line ' (5) (IO) (/5) (20) (25) (30) ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTION I Time—l hOur . Directions: This part consists of selections from prose works and questions on their content, form, and style. After reading each passage. choose the best answer to each question and completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Note: Pay particular attention to the requirement of questions that contain the words NOT, LEAST, or EXCEPT. Questions l-l-3. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. The passage below is from Queen Elizabeth '3 speech to her last Parliament in 1601. To be a King. and wear a Crown, is a thing more glorious to them that see it, than it is pleasant to them that bear it: for my self, I never was'so much inticed With the glorious name of a King, or the royal authority of a Queen, as delighted that God hath made me His Instrument to maintain His Truth and Glory, and to defend this kingdom from dishonor, damage. tyranny. and oppression. But should I ascribe any of these things unto my self, or my sexly weakness, I were not worthy to live, and of all most unworthy of the mercies I have received at God’s hands, but to God only and wholly all is given and ascribed. . ,, . . , The cares and troubles of a Crown I cannot' more fitly resemble than to the, drugs of \a learned physician. per- fumed with some aromatical savour, or to bitter pills gilded over. by which they are made more acceptable or less offensive, which indeed are bitter and unpleasant to take, and for my own part; were it not for conscience sake to discharge the duty that God hath laid upon me, and to maintain His glory and keep you in safety, in mine own disposition I should be willing to resign the place I hold to any other, and glad to be freed of the glory with the labors, for it is not my desire to live nor to reign longer than my life and reign shall be for your good. And though you have had and may have many mightier and wiser Princes sitting in this Seat. yet you never had nor shall have any that will love you better. Thus Mr.‘ Speaker, I commend me to your loyal loves. and yours to my best care and your further councels. and I pray you Mr. Controller. and Mr. Secretary, and you of my Councell, that .before these Gentlemen depart unto their countries, you bring them all to kiss my hand. @12- 7 -,.,.,... . ~-v.‘-,«v—imc-.Nmwt..-- ..,_‘... n.) v.» , , l. The point of Elizabeth’s statement that to wear a crown “is a thing more glorious to them that see it, than it is pleasant to them that bear it" (lines 1-3) is to . " (A) suggest that it is difficult to look upon power without being dazzled (B) assert that she is fulfilled and happy in ruling her people (C) emphasize the burdensome responsibilities of her position ' ‘ (D) reveal the foreknowledge she has of the treach- ery and betrayal of some of her captains (I5) refute the charges of those who think she is weak .2. In using the word “Instrument" (line‘6). Elizabeth specifically emphasizes (A) her obedience to God's will (B) her political power as the monarch (C) her resolve to discharge her duties in a regal manner .- (D) her ambitionito surpass the achievements of her predecessors (E) the equality of men and women in God's eyes 3. In lines 3-8, Elizabeth contrasts what she sees as the source of. true delight with (A) religious devotion (B) exalted earthly power (C) the evils that can befall a kingdom (D) her own weaknesses of character (E) her political and diplomatic skills “Slain-J“! ... run-n. .. 4. Elizabeth asserts that she would not be “worthy to live" (lines 9-10) if she were to (A) be less imperious than certain male rulers (B) fail to take responsibility for all her actions ~ ‘ -—(G)—-take personal credit for her success ’as a ruler (D) fail to maintain the.outward appearances of royalty ' - (E) show mercy to the enemies of her kingdom 5. As controlled by context, the phrase “fitly resemble” (lines 13-14) is best understood to mean (A) precisely describe - (B) truthfully speak (C) justly assume "(D) angrily refute (E) accurately compare 6.. The metaphor developed in the second paragraph suggests primarily that ’ (A) a ruler often must make decisions that the people find sacrilegious (B) God's will is really inscrutable to peoplewho hold power ' ‘ (C) the privileges of power are insufficient —"""'COmpensation for the burdens associated with office . '(D) power often corrupts rulers and betrays them 'into a life of self-indulgence and luxury (E) weak monarchs who rule indecisively are an offense in God’s eyes 7. Pills that are “bitter and unpleasant to take" (lines 17-18) are best understood as a metaphor for (A) the advice and diagnoses of doctors (B) attacks on 'a monarch from foreign enemies (C) the jealousy and envy of other princes (D) the duties and obligations of a sovereign (E) the pain and suffering that characterize an illness ‘ ' 8. As used in line l9 “discharge” most nearly'means , (A) fire (B) cancel (C) fulfill (D) remove from (E) pour forth ”13 9. The most probable reason that Elizabeth says. “in 10. ll. 12. 13. mine own disposition I should be willing to resign ' the place I hold to any other," (lines 20-22) is to (A) defend herself against charges that she has _ ' " usurped the authority of others (B) strengthen the idea that she rules in accordance with divine will ; (C) hint at her plan to resign and make way for another ruler (D) suggest that her confidence in her ability to be a strong‘ruler is weakening (E) signal the fact that she is gradually losing the support of her people In line 22; the word “other" most probably refers to (A) the challengers in her audience (B) any potential and viable ruler (C) former rulers now deposed (D) any leader among her subjects (E) any designated royal office The rhetorical strategy employed in lines 25-27 is best described as (A) extending a metaphor to close the argument (B) reducing the argument to an acceptable p'aradox' - 7 (C) marshaling facts to support the central idea. (D) making an abstraction concrete by use of analogy (E) counterbalancing a possible weakness with‘a greater virtue In context, -“Thus . . . I commend me to your loyal loves" (line 28) most nearly means (A) because of this you must obey me (B) this proves my devotion to you (C) for this reason I ask that you do your part (D) I ask your friends and families to think well of me _ (E) in this’way I ask your continued allegiance ' The most apparent goal of Elizabeth's rhetoric and reasoning is to -' - (A) explain the need to share authority with her Parliament (B) elicit sympathy and support for her foreign policy in spite of her mistakes ' (C) establish her kinship with the members of her Parliament (D) convince her audience of the purity and altru- ism of her motives (E) dissipate the increasing hostility of her subjects Questions 14-27. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. Genius or originality is, for the most part, some things out of nature, in fiction or fairy land, or make a strong quality in the mind, answering to and bringing our Voyage to the moon “to descry new lands, rivers, or some new and striking quality in nature. mountains in her spotty globe," but saw things in nature - Line Imagination is, more properly, the power of carrying that every one had missed'before him, and gave others ' (5) on a given feeling into other situations, which must be (55) eyes to see them with. This is the test and triumph of ‘ done best according to the hold which the feeling itself originality, not to shew us what has never been, and t has taken of the mind.1 In new and unknown combina- what we may therefore very easily never have dreamt of, tions, the impression must act by sympathy, and not by but to point out to us what is before our eyes and under rule; but there can be no sympathy, where there is no our feet, though we have had no suspicion of its exis- (10) passion, no original interest. The personal interest may. (60) tence, for want 'of sufficient strength of intuition, of in-some cases oppress and circumscribe the imaginative determined grasp of mind to seize and retain it. V 7 faculty, as in the instance of Rousseau: but in general the strength and consistency of the imagination will be in ’ (1821) proportion to the strength and depth of feeling; and it is (15) rarely that a man even of lofty genius will be able to do {“1 '10 {ml here'snefik of the figurative or fanciful exercise of the imagina- more than carry on his cwn feelings and character, 01’ tion which consrsts in finding out some striking object or image 3°, 1&9? . . . . . . tratc another.’ (Author 5 note) - some prominent and ruling passmn, into fictitious and uncommon situations. Milton has by allusion embodied 2 pmeus: a sea god in Gm], my‘hology who was able ,0 assume a great part of his political and personal history in the airmen: shapes a: will (20) chief characters and incidents of Paradise Lost. He has, - ‘- no doubt, wonderfully adapted and heightened them, - )4, The first paragraph of the passage serves to but the elements are the same; you trace the bias and . . - . . opinions of the man in the creations of the poet. Shake- (A) distinguish between “"0 closely related concepts spear (almost alone) seems to have been a man of _ (B) define an abstract idea for further discussion (25) genius. “Born universal heir to all humanity," he was “as (C) offer a factual theorem about nature one, in suffering all who suffered nothing;" with a : (D) present a contrast to be evaluated , .PeliffigfiympélfllXflml al'flFWDESLYCE all}; illdiffercnt to (E) cite a'comrhon misconception among critics all: who did not [amper'Withnature 'or'Warp' her to his. , "‘r"‘ ' “f~ "'~ own purposes: ’who “knew all qualities With a learned . 15. The speaker is critical of Rousseau’s ' ' m- " (30) spirit," instead of judging of them by his own predilec- : 'tions; and was rather “a pipe for the Muse’s finger to (A) lack 0f PTCCiSiOH 7 play what stop she pleased,” than anxious to set up any (B) excessive subjectivity character or pretensions of his own. His genius consisted (C) idea of sympathy in the faculty of transforming himself at will into what- (D) ambitiousness (35) ever he chose: his originality was the power of seeing (E) aloofness " "m" every object from the point of view in which others Would see it. He was the Proteus2 of human intellect.. Genius in ordinary is a more obstinate and less versatile thing. It is sufficiently exclusive and self-willed, quaint (40) and peculiar. It does some one thing by virtue of doing nothing else: it excels in some one pursuit by being blind to all excellence but its own. It is just the reverse of the cameleon; for it does not borrow, but lend its colour to all about it: or like the glow-worm, discloses a little ; (45) circle of gorgeous light in the twilight of obscurity, in the 7 3 night of intellect, that surrounds it. So did Rembrandt. ' , If ever there was a man of genius, he was one, in the ' 7 ' " “W“w proper sense of the term. He lived in and revealed to others a world of his own, and mightibe said to have (50) invented a new view of nature. He did not discover II14 16. The speaker characterizes Paradise Lost as a literary Wwork that (A) reflects the conflict between , in‘its author ' (B) offers an appropriate example of a work of 7 genius , (C) draws a clear distinction between ordinary people and poets (D) reveals the views of its creator (E) captures the political climate ofi‘an age thought and feeling [7. The speaker emphasizes that “Shakespear (almost alone)” (lines 23-24) can be distinguished from‘ other writers on the basis of his ability to (A) write sympathetically but without personal bias (B) show compassion toward humanity _. (C) create new poetic forms " (D) manipulate poetic forms in his writings (E) imagine fantastic worlds and situations 18. In context, the phrase “a pipe for the Muse’s finger . _ to lay what stop she pleased“ (lines .3l-32) suggests . '__Shak” esneare‘s «w» ,,, (A) exploration of poetic forms (B) ability to empathize (C) capacity for critical judgment (D) interest in theories of originalin in art (E) brilliant interpretation of works by others ,, , 2.777- 19. The statement “He was the Proteus of human intel- lect" (line 37) is an example of which of the snow? (A) Verbal irony (B) Understatement (C) Punning (D) Metaphorical allusion (E) Proof by extended example , v a v .772 20. The three successive sentences beginning with “It” (lines 39-46) serve most directly to (A) contrast the qualities of “Genius in ordinary" (line 38) with those of an extraordinary genius (B) characterize the various aspects of Shake- speare’s genius (C) suggest the conflicting impulses of a genius (D) illustrate how Shakespeare was the “Proteus of human intellect“ (line 37) (E) contrast the genius of Milton and Shakespeare to that of Rembrandt ‘ 21? 'I’lie’ph‘rasfie’WWer—to all excellence but its own" (line 42) refers to which of the following? (A) “Proteus” (line 37) (B) “human intellect" (line 37) (C) “Genius in ordinary” (line 38) (D) “some one thing” (line 40) (E) “the cameleon” (line 43) The passage is reprinted for your use in answering the remaining questions. Genius or originality is, for the most pan some strong quality' in the mind, answering to and bringing out some new and striking quality In nature. Um, Imagination 13, more properly, the power of carrying (5) on a given feeling into other situations, which must be done best according to the hold which the feeling itself has taken of the mind.I In new and unknown combina- tions, the Impression must act by sympathy, and not by rule; but there can be no sympathy, where there is no (/0) passion, no original interest. The personal interest may in some cases oppress and circumscribe the imaginative faculty, as in the instance of Rousseau: but in general the strength and consistency of the imagination will be in proportion to the strength and depth of feeling; and it is (15) rarely that a man even of lofty genius will be able to do more than carry on his own feelings and character, or some prominent and ruling passion, into fictitious and uncommon situations. Milton has by allusion embodied a great part of hispolitical and personal history in the (20) chief characters and incidents of Paradise Lost. He has. no doubt, wonderfully adapted and heightened them, but the elements are the same; you trace the bias and opinions of the man in the creations of the poet. Shake- spear (almost alone) seems to have been a man of ‘ (25) genius. “Born universal heir to all humanity," he was “as one in suffering all who suffered nothing;” with a (55) ( 60) perfect sympathy'with all things, yet alike indifferent to all: who did not tamper With nature or warp her to his own purposes; who “knew all qualities with a learned (3o; spirit,” instead of judging of them by his own predilec- tions; and was rather “a pipe for the Muse’s finger to play what stop she pleased," than anxious to set up any character or pretensions of his own. His genius consisted in the faculty of transforming himself at will into what- (35) ever he chose: his originalin was the power of seeing every object from the point of view in which others would see it. He was the Proteus2 of human intellect. Genius in ordinary IS a more obstinate and less versatile thing. lt‘ is sufficiently exclusive and self-willed, quaint (40) and peculiar. It does some one thing by virtue of doing nothing else: it eXcels in some one pursuit by being blind to_all excellence but its own. It .is just the reverse of the cameleon; for it does not borrow, but lend its colour to all about it: or like the glow-worm, discloses a little r45; circle of gorgeous light in the twilight of obscurity, in the night of intellect, that surrounds it. So did Rembrandt. If ever there was a man of genius, he was one, in the riproper sense of the_ term. He lived In and _revealed to others a world of his own, and might be said to have (sat invented a new view of nature. He did not discover [email protected]