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Nike 2009 Case Study

Background Information

Situation Analysis

For years, NIKE, Inc. has been the worldwide leader of athletic shoe sales. The company’s successful brand image united competition and empowerment for the competitive, athletic user. However, NIKE is losing their grasp of the urban, casual runner. These runners exercise and run for fitness or enjoyment, avoiding the competitive atmosphere many of NIKE’s current brand statements are aligned with. Nike needs to reposition their brand towards a focus on fun and functionality. By compiling and examining a variety of information we will be able to interpret where NIKE currently stands in the athletic shoe industry and how they will be able to adapt their brand position to be more successful in the future. These adaptations will allow NIKE to reach a more casual group of urban runners and consequently increase sales forecasts, while maintaining a dominating portion of the market for athletic shoes. 

 

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Company Profile

NIKE Inc. was established in 1971 by Bill Bowerman, a former track and field coach at the University of Oregon, and Phil Knight, a student-athlete at the University of Oregon. After several years of distribution under the name Blue Ribbon Sports, the duo decided to enter the athletic shoe manufacturing business. With the help of Jeff Johnson, the first employee of the company, the brand Nike was born. One year later, in 1972, a graphic design student at Portland State University developed a brand symbol that would one day be recognized globally: the Nike Swoosh. The company later adjusted its official name to NIKE, Inc.
The main headquarters of NIKE Inc. have been located in Beaverton, Oregon since 1990. Leading the executive team of NIKE Inc. is Mark Parker. According to the official NIKE website, “Parker joined Nike as one of our first footwear designers back in 1979, and he’s been at the center of Nike innovation ever since,” (About NIKE, Inc.). He is now President and CEO of the company. Alongside him are co-founder Philip H Knight, who serves as the Chairman of the Board of Directors, and Charlie Denson, who holds the position of NIKE brand president.

 


NIKE Inc. is a publicly traded company that sells athletic products under the NIKE brandname and affiliate brands. At the end of fiscal 2011, NIKE Inc. earned a $20.9 billion in revenue. The brand carries products for men and women and covers a range of products from cross-training shoes to the NIKE+ technology platform. Action sports, athletic training, basketball,football, soccer, running, and tennis are only a few of the many activities NIKE manufactures products for. Several NIKE affiliates specialize in one of these sports, such as NIKE Golf, a sub-branch that designs golf equipment, balls, footwear, bags, and other accessories for the global market. NIKE golf is not the only affiliate contributing to NIKE Inc. Cole Haan, a luxury brand with more than 180 retail location and a fiscal 2011 sales total of $518 million. Converse, known as “America’s Original Sports Company” realized $1.1 billion in sales in fiscal 2011. Hurley International, an action sports apparel company earned $252 million in sales that same year. Nike claims, “As part of our growth strategy, we continue to invest in opportunities that will generatethe highest possible long-term returns,” (About NIKE, Inc.). Altogether, the affiliate brands contributed $2.7 billion in Nike Inc. revenue last year.

 

Industry Trends

The athletic shoe industry is segmented into more than fifteen specific groups. Among those categories, running shoes is the largest. According to American Time Use Survey, between the yeras of 2003 and 2006, 7.1 percent of people over the age of 15 engaged in running as a daily activity (https://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/sports/). Other activities include basketball, dancing, and hiking but have a lower participation rate. From the year 2005 to 2007 every retail channel, with the exception of department stores, has experienced an increase in athletic shoe sales. Shoe stores sales have increased 3.5% to $10,059 million, sporting good stores have increased 13.7% to $3,546 million, superstores have increased 7.1% to $2,072 million, and clothing stores have increased 3.9% to $1,323 million (Mintel, 2008).


Sales have consistently increased within the industry. From 2002 to 2007 there has been a steady growth of about 2.8% per year . This pattern is forecast to continue through the year 2012.Although the growth rate of the industry is low, sports participation rates have never been static. There are also outside sales from users who are not looking to purchase the shoe for athletic use. According to a 2008 survey, only 19% of people purchase athletic shoes solely for sports orexercise (Mintel, 2008).
Other factors that affect the purchase of athletic shoes are comfort, price, performance, style, brand, technology, and endorsement. In the same 2008 survey, users revealed they rate comfort at 99% importance and price at 94% importance. It is important to realize that, even though the respondents in the survey indicated only 13% importance to celebrity endorsement, there has been research that shows this is inaccurate. Mintel believes “respondents may be understating the importance of celebrity endorsement. Mintel’s Sports Enthusiasts-U.S., July 2007, found that 38% of obsessed sports enthusiasts purchased licensed sports clothing in the past months” (Mintel, 2008).
Like many industries, the athletic shoe industry is facing difficulaty due to the state of our economny. While there has been steady growth in the industry, inflated prices are causing sales to remain static (Mintel, 2008). The competition for market share in the athletic shoe industry is a thre at because of innovative brands in the industry. On the other hand, technological advancements in terms of promotion and product pose exciting opportunities. There are also opportunities to reach the consumers at department stores, where sales are currently down 21.8%(Mintel, 2008).

 

 Competitive Analysis

Many companies that vie to capture the purchases of consumers across the nation in the market of athletic shoes. However, NIKE dominates a majority of the market share for athletic shoes This fact is clearly evident from the pie chart located in Appendix A, Figure 1. According to the data from Market Share Reporter, the NIKE brand alone owns a 35.21 percent market share, a giant portion of the total market (Ed. Robert S. Lazich and Virgil L. Burton, III). Additionally, the same report notes that two NIKE subsidiary companies own marginal portions of the market, with Jordan brand shoes having a 10.83 percent market share and Converse owning 2.83 percent of the market. Jordan and Converse offer niche-specific athletic shoes. Jordan offers shoes tailored for basketball players and Converse aims towards style over function. These brands would not take away sales from NIKE if the company chose to market towards urban, casual runners.
NIKE has a few clear-cut competitors in the market for athletic shoes.Adidas stands as NIKE’s top competitor. Adidas has the marketing power to expand its brand and positive brand standing within the industry: the company will sponsor the 2012 Olympics in London (London 2012 Olympic Partners). Adidas can steal casual, urban runners who have preconceived notions of NIKE as a brand strictly for “the competitor”. Adidas’s brand owns 32 percent of the market for athletic shoes (Ed. Robert S. Lazich and Virgil L. Burton, III). The Reebok brand is a subsidiary of Adidas that also owns a decent portion of the market. While much of Reebok’s 6 income is from apparel and cleat sales, its athletic shoes own about 2.58 percent of the market for athletic shoes (Ed. Robert S. Lazich and Virgil L.Burton, III). Reebok, however, is aggressively moving to increase its market share this year. Their updated line of “Zigtech” shoes position the brand as a fitness shoe instead of a competitive shoe (Reebok Zigactive: Ochocinco vs. Annie). Reebok has also upped its social media efforts to cater to the interactivity consumers gravitate towards.

 

The American-owned company New Balance poses a viable risk to NIKE’s market holdings. The company is the only shoe manufacturer to still manufacture in the U.S., though some of its operations have moved oversees. This may entice Americans who prefer purchasing shoes from an American born and made company (which may be older American citizens). New Balance owns 5.05 percent of the market (Ed. Robert S. Lazich and Virgil L. Burton, III).
Skechers, with their shape up brand, own 4.61 percent of the market for athletic shoes (Ed. Robert S. Lazich and Virgil L. Burton, III). Skechers has built their brand’s image around the casual runner. Their shape-ups product has attracted some casual runners, especially women,
due to its combination of fashion and comfort in an athletic shoe.
Finally, Japanese company Asics owns a 2.83 percent share of the athletic shoe market (Ed. Robert S. Lazich and Virgil L. Burton, III). Asics has gained ground steadily in recent years after being virtually unknown in the past. They do not stand as much of a threat to NIKE in their current position.
Looking at all of NIKE’s competition this year, the two companies that pose the largest threat to NIKE are Adidas and Reebok. Adidas controls the largest portion of the athletic shoe market outside of NIKE and its subsidiaries. Their newer “Adidas is All In” advertisements seek to position their brand as an exciting product that can make any person feel like a rock star (Adidas Is All In). Reebok, though they do not control the largest portion of the shoe market outside of NIKE, is making a push to promote their products as catering to the lifestyles of the consumers. The company has recently launched an improved line, “zigtech”, that helps the consumer enjoy “the sport of fitness” with their innovative design and responsive cushioning (Reebok Zigactive: Ochocinco vs. Annie). In the coming sales year, Adidas and Reebok have the potential to steal urban, casual runners from NIKE’s current market holding.

 

Brand Analysis

NIKE currently positions its brand towards the competitive athlete. For years, the company’s motto has been “Just Do It”, embodying the spirit of athletes who perform well under any circumstances. On NIKE’s corporate website, the company states its mission is, “to bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world...if you have a body, you are an athlete.” (About NIKE, Inc.) NIKE makes a statement by saying everyone can be an athlete by wearing their shoes, creating emotional attachments that connect consumers with feelings of empowerment; this gives NIKE the advantage of reaching the “self-expressive” level of benefits with its consumers. The idea that NIKE can give you a leg up on the competition is a heavy emotional benefit that drives the current brand image of NIKE’s athletic shoes. Consumers around the world also trust NIKE as a dependable brand (Mintel, 2011).
In its advertising campaigns today, NIKE attempts to capture consumers through functional and emotional benefits. In its “Make it count” campaign, NIKE shows people all across the country performing a variety of athletic activities in the NIKE shoes, showing the functional benefit of the shoes to be that they allow the owner to participate in any activity to their fullest (NIKE, #makeitcount). The ad then moves into the company’s new slogan, “Make it count”, creating the emotional appeal that NIKE shoes will help the consumers to create a difference in their lifestyles through their actions. Overall, the ad campaign creates a brand personality that marvels NIKE as both an exciting and successful product which gives consumers the ability to perform at a greater level while feeling important in their new shoes.
NIKE’s main competitor, Adidas, also attempts to reach the more active athletes who strive to defeat their competition. Adidas tries to prove that their shoe will make athletes more prepared to face the competition through the use of their shoes. On the company’s website, Adidas lists two of its goals in its mission. They say, “We are innovation and design leaders who seek to help athletes of all skill levels achieve peak performance with every product we bring to market. We are consumer focused,” (About Us, Adidas-group.com). This is where Adidas differentiates themselves from NIKE’s strategies. Adidas tries to create top-of-mind brandpresence while associating shoes with innovation and change. They help consumers see that they can live a life of glory with the brand’s shoes.
In their recent “Adidas Is All In” campaign, Adidas has effectively brought about functional and emotional attributes relating to the brand (Adidas, Adidas Is All In Commercial). Their sixty-second spot aired over television and the Internet, showing a functional benefit of asleek, comfortable shoe that can help the consumer accomplish active tasks to the best of their ability. Adidas, however, separates from NIKE through their emotional appeals. In the sixty-second spot, everyone from athletes to citizens are HAVING FUN and creating lasting experiences. When Adidas says that they are “All In”, they create a brand personality geared towards those looking for excitement in their athletic and running experiences rather then just function.
Following the lead of Adidas, Reebok creates a brand that is based around the consumer. Their slogan, “I am what I am”, stresses the idea that Reebok’s shoes can serve many different purposes to different types of consumers. On their company website, Reebok has a box at the top of the screen that says, “I want” with the ability for the consumer to add information based upon their interests (Reebok.com).
Reebok has created a brand image and personality that puts the consumer first. Their shoes inspire the consumer to be whatever they wish, but be aided in their tasks by what they wear. This is important, because Reebok isn’t forcing their consumers to have a competitive athlete persona.
Reebok also largely differentiates from its competitive field through its innovation in functional benefits. Their new lines of “Zigtech” shoes promote comfort and performance in their unique design. The common human being works out and matches NFL star Chad Ochocinco in all activites during the course of the commercial, showing the functional benefits of the shoe by saying that it will help to better your workout performance (Reebok, Reebok Zigactive: Ochocinco vs. Annie). At the end of the commercial, text says “The Sport of Fitness hasArrived”. In separating sport from fitness, Reebok has created an emotional appeal towards the runners and workout experts that can create brand loyalty.

 

Consumer Analysis

NIKE, for years, has put forth a tremendous amount of effort in order to preserve a large following of consumers who remain loyal to the brand and what it stands for. The current users of NIKE branded shoes come from a wide variety of demographic backgrounds. Among the many consumers who use NIKE’s athletic shoes, a clear split among male and female consumers exists, with males making up 50.7% sales to the 49.3% of sales from females (Mediamark,2010). Most of the consumers of NIKE products went off to college, with 58.6% of the consumers having either attended college or gone on past a four-year college to graduate school (Mediamark, 2010). Some age segments purchase more shoes then others. The largest purchasers to increase the sales of the brand’s products; consumers age 18-24 make up the market sector that could be receptive to new ads focusing on a casual running experience that would encourage
urban runners to buy NIKE shoes. Consumers within the ages of 18 to 24 years old are more likely to try out new athletic shoe brands on a more consistent basis then any other age group (Mintel, 2008). This age group also uses athletic shoes in a fairly consistent manner, exercising more then any other age group. Around 54% of this age group runs or jogs regularly as opposed to much lower numbers in older generations (Mintel, 2008). Additionally, New Balance and Reebok have created more brand loyalty among older consumers (Mintel, 2008). It would be difficult to change the perception of NIKE products to older generations who have already formulated their beliefs about running shoe brands. In marketing a casual, non-competitiveatmosphere associated with NIKE shoes to urban runners between the ages of 18-24, the products can become top-of-mind to this age group. The age group stands as a mix of emergent consumers. In creating positive associations related to a casual experience with the products, NIKE can make the 18-24 year old consumers brand loyal going into the future and increase the company’s total sales now and in the future.

 

Creative Analysis

NIKE, Inc.’s newest ad campaign is an international campaign titled “Make It Count”, which focuses on the new Nike Fuelband product. (NIKE Inc, 2012). The “#makeitcount” text is also included in many of the advertisements. The campaign focuses on the concept of making what a person does in life “count” or hold significance by inferring that life itself is a sport that must be won. This campaign’s American advertisements focus on a spectrum of bright red, yellow, and green often blending together, while many of the ads also use neutrals and dull backgrounds to make the main colors pop. The commercials contain a mash-up of different advertisements Overall the ad entices viewers by creating a desire to see what the advertisement is about, but there is no explanation other than brief but intense imagery of strength training. This campaign is functional, introducing the mash up of different athletes wearing NIKE products and excelling at the activities they are performing. These commercials also include shots of urban environments, such as a busy street, graffiti covered walls, skylines, and a busy flight of stairs. Upbeat alternative rock music is a prominent feature, and many of these ads include font, or a voice over explaining the new “Nike Fuel” product. (Youtube/Nike, 2012) Both the print and commercial advertisements use a strong bold font in all capital letters, and the font is usually black, white, red or green depending on the background of the image (Appendix A, Figure 2).

 

This campaign is self-expressive and focuses and an adventure and ambition appeal by showing unknown talented young athletes, making consumers desire to be like them. Using people who appear to be real life Nike consumers instead of celebrities make this concept more
realistic and reachable to consumers.

1.0 INTRODUCTION OF NIKE

Nike is a major publicly traded sportswear, footwear and equipment supplier based in the US which was founded in 1962 originally know as Blue Ribbon Sports. Nike is the world leader in the manufacturing of sportswear and gear with more than 47 market shares across the global (Nike.com, 2011).

Nike produces a wide range of sports equipments such as running shoes, sportswear, football, basketball, tennis, golf, etc. Now Nike follows the global fashion trends and is well known and popular in the youth culture and hip hop culture to supply some fashion products. Nike recently teams up with Apple Company to produce the Nike+ products which can monitor a runner’s performance through a radio in the shoe that can link to the iPods. Besides that, Nike also becomes the top of three companies which are climate-friendly companies which build better image to customers. 

Nike’s excellence marketing strategies are their energy to achieve their market goals. Nike believes the “pyramid influence” that the preferences of a small percentage of top athletes influence the product and brand choice. So Nike contracted with many athletes’ spokesperson, professional teams and college athletic teams to advertise and promote their products to customers. Nike seriously pay attention on the technology producing, design and selling such as e-commerce, high-tech running shoes, Nike+ with Apple, etc. Nike outsourcing their products most of the factories are located in Asia such as China, Indonesia and India.

2.0 PROS OF NIKE’S CORE MARKETING STRATEGY

Nike put heavily proportion in their marketing strategies and products deign. In order to sustain their dominance in the industry and retain their competitive advantages, Nike actively responds to the market trends and changes in consumer preference by adjusting their marketing strategies, the mix of existing product offerings, developing new products, styles and categories, and influencing sports and fitness preferences through various marketing strategies. Now we discuss the pros of Nike’s core marketing strategies and related them to the relevant marketing theories help us to depth understanding.

2.1 Distribution

More efficient product distribution is the more sales and thus more profits. The delivery of the right products and at the right time to the customers is not only effect the utility but also leads to high level of consumer’s satisfaction and loyalty. Nike distributes its products on different level basis. The high premium products are given to a certain distributors while leaving the low priced to be sold at highly discounted price at the retail stores such as Wal-Mart (Jeannet J, 200, pp 44).

Nike has become the leader in the e-commerce by being the first to the market with its e-commerce website. Nike launched its e-commerce site in April 1999 by offering 65 styles of sport shoes to the US market for purchasing (Nike, 2000). This program represents the first time a company has offered mass footwear through the Internet and provides competitive advantages to Nike.

2.2  Advertising and Promotion

Nike makes contracts with some celebrity athletes which can draw attention to their products such as Tiger Woods, Ronaldo. This has created a relatively high level of Nike’s awareness. Besides that, Nike also employed a large amount of advertisements through the mass media (Goldman S, 2000, pp 154). Nike’s brand images, including the Nike’s name and the trademark are considered to represent one of the most recognizable brands in the world. The Nike name and associated trademarks have appeared from players’ shirts, pants and everywhere. Their aggressive advertising campaigns, celebrity endorsements and quality products all enhance their brand and image. For example, when a celebrity athlete sponsors a specific brand of athletic shoes, the brand will be associated with success.

2.3 Price

Nike targets on the consumers who care more about the utility and quality of the products rather than the price. In this way, the price is not affect too much (Frank, 2004, pp173). This has make Nike to set relatively higher price than its competitors. This strategy focuses on the consumers who like Nike and pushes the products value to a higher level. The customers who consider a product to be high quality are likely to pay the high price more often and consistently. Once the consumers develop the product intimacy, they come to associate their person with the products and will pay whatever price quoted on the products.

Nike use vertical integration price strategy in which they take ownership of the participants at channel level that differ and they also engage in various channel level operations both to control costs and thus influence the pricing function (Goldman S, 2000, pp154).

2.4  Market Segmentation and Target

Most of the consumer of Nike’s products is mainly athletic. Nike is the master of segmentation, their segmenting market typically target’s athletes, both women and men from the age 15 to 35. Nike’s targeting market is active people who enjoy high quality sporting goods, especially footwear. Nike focuses on creating premium consumer experiences on product innovation, brand leadership and elevated retail presence. Nike targets on these customers by agreements between Nike and athletic teams, college’s athletic teams for products sponsorship and eventual promotion to the members of these teams. Even though others are likely to buy the products, Nike focuses on the athlete more than any group of individuals even though it also target on the youth. This strategy is especially successful because of its ability to reach a large number of athletes.

3.0  CONS OF NIKE’S CORE MARKETING STRATEGY

Although Nike’s marketing strategies had brings lot of positive implications to the company, but it will bring negative implications to Nike too. The negative implications that will identify in this assignment are high cost incurred, influence of spokesperson, and competitors.

3.1 Costly

Since Nike has implemented several marketing strategies, it had incurred high costs in producing and promoting its products. The costs are increase among handling inventory, designing, advertising and production. (Abhiroopsur, 2009) Beyond that, the inflation had raised the costs of raw materials and transportation. To deal with these problems, Nike has increased the products’ prices and reduces its marketing budget. Therefore, this could hurt the long-term growth of the Nike. (Taulli, 2011) According to Boggan (2001), Nike had also employed child labor in Cambodia to reduce its production and labour costs. This had affected its brand image, and it might have many people boycott Nike and stop to buy anything from Nike. (Boggan, 2001) Furthermore, Nike has been using child labour in the production of its soccer balls in Pakistan. (TED, 2011)

3.2 Influences of spokesperson

One of the Nike’s core marketing strategies is depend on a group of athletes to promote its products. Nike prefers to have high profile athletes as its endorsers, like Runner Steve Prefontaine, Michael Jordan, and LeBron James. The athletes had positive and negative influence on changing consumer preferences, changes in consumer tastes and priorities, and also consumers’ buying decisions. The action and attitude of Nike’s chosen spokespersons could bring the impacts on its promotional strategies. For instance, it will attract the athlete’s idolater to purchase the products if Nike using a popular athlete as endorser. On the other hand, if the athlete were caught in drug addicted or any immoral attitude, it will affect the customers not to buy Nike’s products, thus will affect Nike’s sales, revenue and profit. (Cloke M., 2011)

3.3 Intense Competitors

There is intense competition faced by Nike. Their competitors are Adidas, Reebok, Puma, and so forth, whilst competition is tighter with the coming of Adidas. More, the product line is slightly different between Nike and Adidas. Nike is mainly focus on footwear for men and women who between 15 to 35 years old, while Adidas is specialize in footwear for men, women and children between the age of 10 to 30. This had shown that there is less diversification of Nike marketing strategy. They could also provide footwear for children to attract more parents to become their potential customers. Additionally, Nike distribution strategy is mainly focus in domestic market which is United States of America, whilst Adidas’s main office is located at Germany, but it focus in European market. Therefore, Nike should distribute its products to more region and countries in order to capture more potential customers and achieve greater reputation. (Allick et al., 2000)

4.0 RISKS OF NIKE’S CORE MARKETING STRATEGY

Nike faces many risks when they use their core marketing strategies to achieve their goals and these risks can come from both internally and externally environmental circumstance. The risks will have a negative influence about Nike’s future development, for example, the market share in the world, reputation, brand image and customer loyalty.

4.1 Changes in Market Trends, Consumer Tastes and Preferences

Nike needs to stay on the top of changes in consumer taste and preferences as evidenced by changes in fashion. So Nike face the risk that fashion trends may change so fast that Nike fails to follow. For example, for a period, the global athletic sportswear is focus on personality and Nike’s products still be general to the customers this will lead Nike go behind of their competitors if their competitors can follow the trends. For another example, such as the social changes, women are becoming more fitness-conscious and are increasingly being targeted as growth potential in the sporting apparel and footwear industries. Due to constant changes in consumer tastes and fashion, these industries are always changing. If Nike cannot follow the fitness trends in the market they will face risks of losing market shares. To compete with this risks and problems, Nike should position it as a trendsetter and not a trend follower and be responsible to their customers. (St. John University, 2004)

4.2  Fast changing of Nike’s products

From the above risk, the changing in fashion and customers’ preference had brings negative effect on its marketing strategies. Hence, Nike should introduce new products to maintain its customer loyalty as well as attract new customer markets. However, it will also have negative implication if Nike’s implement new products rapidly.

As we know, Nike’s products are focus on the athlete’s shoes, apparels and equipments and their target consumers are for the athletes. But now the global trends are to be fashion and personality. So Nike change its marketing strategies and products design to become more fashion and focus on the youth consumers. It brings risks to Nike because in the traditional mind of customers, they consider Nike only sell the athletic products. The fashion or the changing style products is unimaginative for customers to purchase. Not all the customers can follow the changing of Nike. Sometimes customers maybe feel fed up because they cannot follow the changing of Nike’s products will lead Nike lose customers which drop down the customer loyalty and market shares. (St. John University, 2004)

Therefore, Nike should analyse the market and customers’ preference as well as customers’ buying behavior from time to time. Nike could prepare survey form to their customers in order to have more understanding on customers’ taste, requirements when buying sportswear or footwear, and also collect the feedback and recommendation from consumers.

4.3 Expanding to the Overseas

One of Major Nike’s marketing strategies is to expand to overseas and become the leader in the world. It also will bring risks to Nike when they expand their business globally. For example, Nike outsources their products to developing countries such as China, Indonesia, and Thailand. Currency exchange rate fluctuations can disrupt the business of the independent manufacturers that produce Nike products by making their purchase of raw materials more expensive and more difficult to finance. Besides that, the global economic recession influence the overall business operation in the outsourcing countries. For example, inflation rate too high in an outsourcing country will increase the cost and reduce the profits for Nike. What’s more, the war and fuel price fluctuations also can lead to unstable situation for Nike over the long period. (Florzak, 2011)

5.0 COMPETITORS – ADIDAS

5.1 IFFICULTIES FACED BY ADIDAS WHEN COMPETE WITH NIKE

5.1.1 Marketing Strategies

One difficulty most likely to be faced by Adidas is in its marketing, compared to its competitor Nike, Nike spends more money on advertising and promoting their products reputation, Nike spend about $1.13 billion as of 1998 involving celebrities like Tiger Woods, Micheal Jordan, Carl Lewis etc. while paying these celebrities large amount of money (Bedar, 2002), as of 2010, Nike spent about $800 million on Nontraditional advertising by using other medium of advertising their products other than TV and has reduce TV and Print advertising by 40%, and in 2006, Nike introduced the Nike + Platform which is a multi-channel, multi-sensory integration between apple and Nike technologies that allows persons to track performance (Fluffylinks, 2012) in essence, Adidas will have a hard time trying to compete with Nike in terms of advertising and promotion, considering Nike’s utilization of low labor cost of production, Nike can afford to spend so much money in creating awareness for their products and gaining consumers loyalty by utilizing celebrities. Adidas will have to invest more money on advertising and create innovative means of advertising their product, having consumers in mind and following the trends of technologies, for example, Adidas can collaborate with IT companies such as Samsung to create innovative means of advertising their products.

5.1.2  Adidas and Reebok Reputation on Its Finances

Adidas and Reebok joining up together as a merger would be a good deal for leading over Nike but the two companies have a bad reputation due to financial problems which almost led them to bankruptcy and since they are to work together. The expansion of their business will take a while to develop because they have to have strong advertising strategies until the Asians .If the Asians like their ideas then they might as well adjust to the culture in countries like china since it has the biggest population. In the long run Asian countries like China might as well take a long time to work with the company in terms of coming up with factories in china. This might be one of their biggest problems which will enable them take a long time to lead Nike in terms of their market Nike. To go through all that they will be a lot of expenses thus the company might run bankrupt again. (Adidas-Rebook, 2011)

5.2 HOWADIDAS COMPETE WITH NIKE?

5.2.1 Develop the Small Computer “Smart Shoe” Product Line

The development of a product line of smart shoes will build on this reputation and show buyers that Adidas is humorless about innovation and using technology to advance athletic accomplishment. The line of smart shoes combines a microprocessor or implanted controller, sensors, and tiny motors along with memory and battery. The sensors work to steadily monitor, measure, and supply data looking at the landscape, impact of each step, athlete’s body temperature, environment temperature, and athlete’s heart rate. This data can steadily be fed to a microprocessor which agent motors to adjust padding and airflow within the shoe. (Dogiamis et al., 2009)

Wireless GPS system is another feature on the small computer production line that enables runners to decide their accurate location, distance traveled, and speed from the shoe’s GPS by wearing a small wireless GPS wrist strap. The shoes implanted memory can keep data about workouts such as average heart rate, body temperature, calories burnt and force of each step. For situation, in basketball the micro can watch how high the athlete jumps and how hard of a landing they make.  As many athletes demand goods created that can deliver   both watching and accomplishment bettering capabilities, they will find Adidas the solution thus leading to much higher revenue, profit, and market share in sports that Adidas already leads and in sports where Adidas lags in revenue, profit, and market share (Dogiamis et al., 2009)

5.2.2 Implementation of Rebranding Reebok Program

Adidas Group should phase out its high accomplishment athletic shoe line and reposition itself in the casual footwear and active footwear market within the next years. The high accomplishment athletic shoe line can be sponged up into the Adidas brand. Adidas It should consider opening Reebok retail outlets that market Reebok as well stylish Reebok at more upscale department stores such as Macy’s and Nordstrom. Reebok should ensure keeping up a very high level of quality and durability of its shoes. However, it should work with major fashion designers such as Calvin Klein to come up with a well stylish product line of shoes meant for active, casual use, gain brand image as an upscale and more cultured shoemaker. Reebok should first come up with a line of casual but well stylish shoes designed by Calvin Klein that blend quality and style. (Dogiamis et al., 2009)

The rebranding of Reebok can help Adidas to make larger advancements with women. They want a shoe that can be useful for all visible feature of an active lifestyle. Therefore, marketing Reebok as a well stylish line of shoes meant for active lifestyle might allow Adidas to make larger in roads with women.  Reebok should start a line of well stylish shoes prepared toward women with active lifestyles. (Dogiamis et al., 2009)

The overall rebranding of Reebok should be finished to avoid internal competition within Adidas Group where the Reebok division is seen as the less profitable sibling of Adidas and to keep buyers from believing that Reebok is not an expensive substitute for an excellent Adidas product. (Dogiamis et al., 2009)

5.2.3 Expand Its Sponsorship Program (Marketing)

Adidas mainly focuses in the European market even though it is known in other parts of the world, which is because of its collaboration with soccer events all over the world and football associations with bodies such as FIFA, UEFA, leagues, clubs and individual players, in 2010, Adidas experience its most successful year in the history of football with sales above 1.5 billion Euros. It also had a sure climax during the 2010 FIFA World Cup of which it sponsored the wining team Spain and the adiZero F50 which is also an Adidas product had the top scoring boot in the event, lastly, Adidas Football group on Facebook massively increased from 100,000 members to over 6 million members presently. Adidas has been an official sponsor of the Olympics and has also been included as a sponsor of the 2012 Olympics; this gives it an edge over its competitor Nike. (AdidasGroup, 2011) It should use this opportunity to carry out precise marketing, by focusing on its segment market which includes the soccer, tennis and athletics teams and probably expand its focus to the up and emerging local teams in the grassroots, because, this group of people are keen about sports and spend time watching them on the TV but hardly get access to them unless they purchase the product themselves.

5.2.4    Change in Consumer Perception to Products

Adidas can also change the consumer’s perception about its products, most consumers perceive Adidas product as being too stiff and therefore are uncomfortable with it, Adidas can come up with a durable but use soft materials for its product as well as rebrand it product as not just a sporting shoe but also a fashionable shoe which consumers can wear on a casual basis example for outings, parties etc. when this is instilled in the minds of the consumers, more of Adidas product will be purchased by consumers as it will be perceived as durable and fashionable.

5.2.5 Encourage Product Customization

Adidas can also make provisions for consumers to customize their products online before it is delivered to them, this will give customers unique and a wide range of their products to choose from and will also allow them to understand what their consumers really want and focus on satisfying their consumer. With each consumer trying to be very creative and unique in their way, Adidas will shift its focus on their consumers from how much they are to pay for the product to how much they can benefit from the product. Adidas can promote this feature through its Facebook page which has over 6 million members.

5.2.6 Focus on Emerging Market

Adidas can capitalize on Nike’s weakness which is its focus on local market, Adidas can capture emerging markets, and already it has a lead in market such as India and Japan. In Latin America, it experiences a growth sale of 38% in 2007. (ReComparison, 2012) Although it is competing with Nike in China, it should focus on ranking its investment solely on markets which offer superior channels to long-term growth and profit prospects and should also focus on expanding its share to unreached areas especially in China, Russia, Africa and the United States. It should also ensure that it differentiates consumers’ buying behaviors as it differs in different regions and countries and understanding this will be an added advantage to Adidas. 

6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

From the above analysis, we had understanding about the pros, cons and risks of Nike’s core marketing strategies with relevant marketing theories. Besides that, the difficulties Nike faced when they competing with Adidas. We discuss from the distribution, price, products design, promotion and advertising, market segmentation to analysis Nike’s competitive advantages in the global market. We also find that the other side influences of Nike’s core marketing strategies such as costly advertising, raw materials costs affected by the global economic, the spokesperson’s behaviors which has negative influences to the Nike’s brand images. What’s more, the risks of Nike’s core marketing strategies such as Nike cannot follow the world fashion trends, the profits has affected by the currency exchange and economic recession when expand to the global.  

Nike has remained and continues to remain at the top in producing and distributing their sports clothes and equipments. However, Nike should consider the competitive pressure is very heavy and not allow the “sleep at the top”. So Nike should continuously find efficient marketing strategies to keep their top leaders positions.

The following recommendations are suggested in a situation where marketing management is competent. Nike should increase their market shares through issue new products, competitive pricing strategies, and advertisement and promotions activities. Nike also should restructure market dominance by separate themselves from the competitors mainly through mass promotion strategies and pricing strategies which make Nike more attractive to customers. Besides that, Nike must increase their awareness of corporate social responsibility to strengthen their image of themselves. What’s more, Nike should pay much attention to their R&D department to research out different kinds of people with different taste to get the market diversification goals.

All the above show a competent marketing management which can help Nike Keep their top market leaders and keep their competitive advantages.  

7.0  REFERENCES

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Adidas Group (2011) ‘Adidas Strategies’, (online) (cited 10th March 2012). Available from

Adidas-Rebook (2011) ‘Adidas-ReebokMerger’, (online) (accessed 11th March 2012).  

Allick M., Keany E., Koslow J., Tansamrit A., Thorkelson D. (2000) ‘Comparison between Nike and Adidas’, (online) (cited 26 Feb 2012). Available from Soc.duke.edu/~s142tm17/compare.htm 

Bedar S. (2002) ‘Putting the Boot In’, The Ecologist, 32:3, (online) (cited 11th March 2012).

Boggan S. (2001) ‘Nike Admits to Mistakes Over Child Labor’, (online) (cited 2nd March 2012). Available from: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines01/1020-01.htm

Cloke M. (2011) ‘Marketing Management 01′, (online) (cited 26 Feb 2012). Available from URL: http://www.slideshare.net/michaelcloke/marketing-management-01-8568487

Dogiamis G., Vijayashanke N. (2009) ‘Adidas: Sprinting Ahead of Nike’, (online) (cited 4th Feb 2012). 

Enderle K., Hirsch D., Micka L., Saving B., Shah S., Szerwinski T. (2000) ‘Strategic Analysis of Nike, Inc’, (online) (cited 26 Feb 2012). 

Florzak A. (2011) ‘Strategic Analysis: Nike’, (online) (cited 29th February 2012). 

Fluffylinks (2012) ‘How Nike’s Marketing Revolution has Resulted in a 40% Reduction in TV and Print Advertising in the U.S.’, (Online) (accessed 11th March 2012). 

Jerome A. (2005) ‘Pros, Cons and Risks of Nike’s Marketing Strategies’, (online) (cited 12th March 2012).

Jones, S (2012) http://www.study-aids.co.uk/busman/busman2.html MBA Dissertations

Sarah Hopkins (2008) ‘Nike’s Marketing Strategies’, (online) (cited 9th March 2012).

Smith L. C. (2010) ‘Marketing Strategies of Nike’ (online) (cited 10th March 2012).  

St. John University (2004) ‘Nike (Nke)’, (online) (cited 1st March 2012).

Taulli T. (2011) ‘Nike Shares’, (online) (cited 2nd March 2012). 

TED (2011) ‘NIKE: Nike Shoes and Child Labor in Pakistan’, (online) (cited 28th Feb 2012).

Source by Steve Jones

Tags: marketing, small business marketing