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Neuroglial Cells 4 Types Of Essays


There are two groups of cells that comprise the human nervous system – neurons and neuroglia

  • Neurons transmit electrical signals around the body, while neuroglia function to provide nourishment and support


There are a number of different neuroglia within the central and peripheral nervous systems

  • These different types of neuroglia play distinct functional roles in supporting the activity of neurons

Neuroglia in the CNS

There are four types of neuroglia found within the central nervous system:

  • Astrocytes – maintain the blood brain barrier and preserve the chemical environment by recycling ions and neurotransmitters
  • Oligodendrocytes – myelinate axons in the central nervous system and provide an overall structural framework
  • Ependymal cells – line ventricles (brain) and central canal (spine) and are involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid
  • Microglia – remove cell debris, wastes and pathogens via phagocytosis

Neuroglia in the PNS

There are two types of neuroglia found within the peripheral nervous system:

  • Schwann cells – myelinate axons in the peripheral nervous system
  • Satellite cells – regulate nutrient and neurotransmitter levels around neurons in ganglia

Types of Neuroglia

The Nervous Systems Essay

1783 Words8 Pages

The processes of communication between distinct tissues and organs

Among various types of organ systems, the nervous system is one of the most important one in human body. It is responsible for producing, controlling and guiding our thoughts and responses to the world around us according to James W. Pennebaker (2012). During embryological development, the cells that form nervous system are incredibly specialised and work complexly than the cells that form skin or other body parts. Neurosecretory cells are one of the examples of specialised nervous system cells that produce neurosecretions. Neurosecretions are hormones which carry information from sensor cells to target cells and they can be released directly into the bloodstream…show more content…

Each individual nerve is made up of: afferent nerves and efferent nerves where afferent nerves transmit impulses towards the nervous system from different parts of the body and efferent nerves transmit impulses away from the nervous system to the different parts of the body. The autonomic nervous system is another type of PNS responsible for involuntary actions like movement of heart, lungs, etc.

The nervous system is made up of basic units called neurons. The main role of the neurons is to receive, integrate and transmit information throughout the body. There are some neuroglial cells found in nervous system aswell which provide support to the neurons by giving protection and nourishment Neurons have nerve processes that looks like finger like projections extended from the nerve cell body. They also contain axons and dendrites which enable them to transmit signals throughout the body. Normally, axon carry signals away from the cell body and dendrites carry signals toward the cell body according to Regina Bailey (2013). Neurons have three different shapes: bipolar, unipolar and multipolar where bipolar has two neuronal processes coming out of the cell body, unipolar has only one neuronal process coming out of the cell body and multipolar has many neuronal processes coming out of the cell body.

Source: http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/nerve-cell-physiology-part-1/deck/1225587

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